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Rhinos


Black Rhinos: Diceros bicornis
Weight and Height

males: wt 2191-3000 lb (996-1364 kg), ht 56-64 in (140-160 cm)
females: wt 1991-2800 lb (896-1260 kg). ht 54-62 in (135-155 cm)

Horns
Two horns which vary in size and shape based on many factors such as: sex, age, and location; front horn typically thinner than rear and usually longer; front horn: 20 to 32 in (50-80 cm); rear horn: 14 to 16 in (35-40 cm).

Colour
Dark gray

Habitat
The black rhino can be found in a wide range of habitats, such as, semidesert thornbush, montane forest, and wetlands. When picking a home range, rhinos will look for water, wallows and mineral licks. Rhinos have been known to eat over 200 types of plants, herbs and shrubs. The rhino can go up to 4 or 5 days without water. Rhinos have been known to travel 5 to 15 mi (8-25 km) daily to find water for drinking and wallowing in during the dry season.

Activity
The rhino is considered both nocturnal and diurnal. Rhinos can be found eating or sleeping most of the time and as a result are known for being quite lazy. On average, rhinos will move and feed at night, but are most active early and late in the day.

Social Systems
Black rhinos are either solitary and territorial or semisocial and nonterritorial depending on the area in which they live. Researchers have concluded that rhinos are becoming more sociable due to more crowded habitats. In wooded habitats, there are an average of 2.5 rhinos per sq. mi (1/sq. km). Male territories are generally 963 to 1160 acres (390-470 ha) and will generally overlap other territories while female territories are 1433 to 1900 acres.

Reproduction
Females calve at 2.25 to 4 year intervals which depend on the season and several other factors. Females are capable of conceiving by the age of 4 or 5, which is before maturity of 7 years.

Predators
Hyaenas and lions

White Rhinoceros: Ceratotherium simum
Weight and Height
males: wt 448-4972 lb (2040-2260 kg), ht 68-73 in (171-186 cm)
females: wt 3520 lb (1600 kg), ht 66-71 in (165-178 cm)

Horns
Front horn is typically the largest (24 in [60 cm]); the rear horn is much shorter than front horn and is a triangular shape. Females’ horns are generally longer than males.

Colour
Slate gray to yellow-brown.

General Locations
The white rhino was quite abundant in the Northern Savanna, west of the White Nile and Southern Savanna, south of Zambezi. Due to its calm nature, the white rhino became easy prey to human hunters. The southern white rhino was almost extinct, however, due to preservation efforts, several thousand white rhinos have been reintroduced. The white rhino can be seen in the following National Parks and Reserves: Moremi Game Reserve, Kahama Rhino Sanctuary.

Habitat
The white rhino prefers a habitat which includes grassland with water, trees, and mud wallows. The rhino is the largest pure grazer in Africa and is quite unique because of the way that its mouth is constructed for feeding. The white rhino’s wide mouth and strong lips enable it to graze broad areas of dense green grass. The rhino is able to go 2 to 4 days without water year-round, but will drink twice a day when near water.

Activity
The white rhino is both a diurnal and nocturnal animal. The rhino spends about 12 hours a day feeding, 8 hours resting, and the rest of the day socializing, drinking, wallowing and walking.

Social Systems
The white rhino is considered the most sociable member of the rhino family. Rhinos tend to stay closer together than most other browsers that consider open habitats home. In some areas, an average of 12.5 rhinos were seen per square mile (5/sq. km) which is 3 times the density of the black rhino. Males are quite territorial and are considered solitary beings while females tend to associate with groups. An average home range is 198-642 acres (80-260 ha) and can contain 6 or 7 territories. This means that there is only enough space for 2/3 of the adult males to have their own territory. On average, rhinos herd in groups with 6 members which have proven to be quite stable.

Reproduction
The birth peak for white rhinos is during the rainy season. Most females mature by the age of 7 and males by 10 or 12 years. The gestation period for the white rhino is 15 to 16 months.